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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • Submission not previously published
  • Paper not under consideration by another journal
  • British English spelling and punctuation
  • Only approved abbreviations
  • Capital letters used according to rules
  • Quotations according to journal style
  • Citations and references according to style
  • Web documents archived
  • Prepared for blind review

Author Guidelines

A. Some general points

It is important to observe the following points when preparing the text so that the work of the copy-editors is reduced and corrections are not needed when the html version is submitted. A number of the points may seem trivial, but they are necessary to maintain the house style of the journal, ensuring that all papers are presented in the same way. Correcting these minor points can take hours of final editing work on a paper and may delay publication.

Papers submitted to the journal must strictly observe these instructions, otherwise the author(s) will be asked to revise and resubmit, thereby incurring delays in processing. You will also find it useful to read the Style Manual, to ensure that your paper meets the journal's style requirements. Your paper should be submitted as a Word .doc or .docx file, using the Word template provided, with the figures and tables in the text. DO NOT submit as a .pdf file or as an .html file.  Submit your paper through the Open Journal Systems Website. Note that you must have registered as an "Author" to do so, not simply as a "User".  To register and log in use the buttons in the upper right corner of the Web page.

1. Before you begin to write your paper, remember that Information Research is read by students, researchers and practitioners in many fields. They are not experts in your field. When you write for Information Research you are writing for a general audience, not for an audience of academic researchers in your specialism. If you write clearly, without using the jargon of your field, your paper is likely to be read and cited by researchers in different fields of research. Do not create abstract concepts and then use them as though they were things or persons—only persons or machines can perform actions.

2. Set your wordprocessor's language setting to British English – not to what is usually the default setting of American English. Also, set the spelling check function to 'on', which may appear as "correct as you type", so that American spellings are found and changed.

3. Your abstract. It is important to provide a full, informative abstract. Author abstracts are used by the abstracting journals and by the citation indexes of Web of Science and they can be an important means of ensuring that your paper is found by searchers. A full abstract is also a useful means of encouraging searchers to follow-up and view your paper. Consequently, an abstract of 150 to 200 words should be provided and Information Research uses structured abstracts. The rationale for this change is derived from Hartley, J. (2003). Improving the clarity of journal abstracts in psychology: the case for structure. Science Communication, 24(3), 366-379. The common structure employed in many medical journals. is, Introduction, Methods, Analysis, Results and Conclusions. These separate sections should be named as in the abstract below:

Introduction. We report an investigation designed to identify the role of uncertainty in the information search process. Uncertainty has been proposed as a key factor in driving the search for information and this study sought to operationalise the concept and relate it to the problem solving process of academic researchers.
Method. Pre-search, post-search and follow-up interviews were conducted with researchers at the Universities of Sheffield and North Texas. The actual search process, involving an intermediary, was also tape recorded. Transcripts of the interviews and of the search process formed the data for analysis.
Analysis. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were carried out on the data, which related to 111 individual researchers. Quantitative analysis employed the statistical package SPSS, while the qualitative analysis was carried out with the Atlas.ti program.
Results. It proved possible to operationalise the uncertainty concept and to demonstrate that uncertainty declined through the problem solving process. Results are also presented on the relations between uncertainty and the models of information seeking proposed by Ellis, Kuhlthau and Wilson.
Conclusion. Uncertainty appears to have two dimensions: the 'objective', cognitive uncertainty resulting from a perceived lack of knowledge in a field and the 'affective' uncertainty - the feeling of unease or anxiety caused by the cognitive lack.

This structure should serve the majority of papers that are submitted, but may require modification for, for example, more speculative, theoretical papers or for reviews of research. Note that authors may be referred to in an abstract, as above, but you should not include citations, since these become meaningless outside the context of the journal; i.e., when the abstract is copied into an abstracting service, the links to the references are lost. I have placed on the site two papers dealing with structured abstracts by Professor Hartley.

4. The journal does not use ad hoc abbreviations such as LIS (for library and information science (or studies), or DSS (decision support system), IR (information retrieval or information repository), IL (information literacy) or similar abbreviations invented by yourself as author of a paper. Use only internationally recognized initialisms and acronyms such as Unesco, or those used by the organizations themselves on logos, letterheads and Websites, such as Aslib, IFLA, etc. For further information on this see the Style Manual at

An additional point about LIS – this is much over-used and people are rarely writing about research directly related to libraries when they use it: if you are writing about research in libraries, use "library research", if you are writing about information research, use "information research" or "information science research". If you really intend both, use "research in librarianship and information science".

5. Avoid the use of capital letters – they are not to be used to designate research methods, theories, disciplines, etc. Thus, "biology course" not "Biology course", "activity theory", not "Activity Theory", "critical incident technique" not "Critical Incident Technique", "Alexander's model of domain learning" not "Alexander's Model of Domain Learning", "sense making" not "Sense Making". Do not capitalise the first letter of every word in a book title – this is only done for conference titles and journal titles. Do not use capital letters for the words in the title of your paper or for headings and sub-headings.

6. When emphasising text, use italics generally and bold face if you need to emphasise something in an italicised section – do not use quotation marks as a means of emphasis or to highlight an unusual word. For example, 'Schutz's treatment of the life-world...' not 'Schutz's treatment of the "life-world" ...' The use of quotation marks is a practice from the days of typewriters, when it was not possible to italicise or embolden text. Use such emphasis sparingly; most of the time no emphasis is needed and you should use it only for words used in an unusual context, or for neologisms.

7. Quotations. When a quotation is forty words or more in length, it should form a separate, indented, italicised paragraph. Shorter quotations should use single quotation marks and italics. For example: Hansen points out that long communication path lengths 'lead to information distortion in the knowledge network...'

8. Footnotes. Do not use footnotes or endnotes. If the point made is important to the argument in the text, include it in the text. If it is not important, it is not needed. The very nature of the Web page means that no footnote can be seen until the end of the paper, and readers will be deterred from moving from one part of the text to the end and back again. Some footnotes in journals are simply pointers to Web sites mentioned in the text: in papers submitted to Information Research these URLs should be placed in parentheses immediately after the site referred to in the text; e.g., "...exemplified by the Web site of the Guardian newspaper (" When the html version is prepared the link should be embedded in the text; e.g.:

...exemplified by the Web site of <a href="">the Guardian newspaper</a>...

9. Punctuation. English punctuation sometimes differs from the American practice.

9.1 The colon. Do not use a capital letter after a colon, except as follows: (1) when it is followed by reported speech, e.g., "I told him yesterday: 'Don't let me see that happen again!'" (2) when used in the caption to a table or a figure, e.g., "Table 1: Demographic characteristics of participants". Do not use capital letter after a colon in the title of a book or journal paper.

9.2 Quotation marks. When a quotation is part of a sentence, the final quotation mark comes before the full stop (the American practice is to put the quotation mark after the full stop). For example, the correct form is:

Wilson suggests that "the market will ultimately determine what goes into electronic publication and what stays in print".

The quotation mark ends only the quotation, the full-stop (period) ends the sentence as a whole.

American practice would have,

Wilson suggests that "the market will ultimately determine what goes into electronic publication and what stays in print."

9.3 The Oxford "and": American practice is to use the comma before 'and' in all cases: this is referred to as the 'Oxford and' because it is used by Oxford University Press. This is not necessary: use the comma before 'and' only if 'and' introduces a new clause. For example, do not use the comma in this kind of case: 'Oxford and Cambridge are two of the leading universities' – DO use it in this case: 'Oxford and Cambridge are two of the leading universities, and generally top the citation rankings of UK universities'.

10. Figures. Figures should be no wider than 750 px. They need to fit the width of the journal's page. When preparing figures it is useful to do so using PowerPoint or, on the Mac, Keynote - the text labels from such slides are better than those produced using, for example, Word. If your figure is too large, you can reduce the size by using a simple graphics or photo editor such as Adobe Photoshop Elements. On the other hand, the text elements need to be legible on screen and, if this is not the case with a 750 px. width image, provide an additional, larger image, and this will be used to link to from the smaller image.

11. Ensuring a blind review. The journal uses the double blind review process, i.e., neither the reviewer nor the author is aware of the other's identity. The OJS help system includes the following instruction:

To ensure the integrity of the blind peer-review for submission to this journal, every effort should be made to prevent the identities of the authors and reviewers from being known to each other. This involves the authors, editors, and reviewers (who upload documents as part of their review) checking to see if the following steps have been taken with regard to the text and the file properties:
1. The authors of the document have deleted their names from the text, with "Author" and year used in the references, instead of the authors' name, article title, etc.
2. With Microsoft Office documents, author identification should also be removed from the properties for the file (see under File in Word), by clicking on the following, beginning with File on the main menu of the Microsoft application: File > Save As > Tools (or Options with a Mac) > Security > Remove personal information from file properties on save > Save.

12. Plagiarism. Papers are checked for evidence of plagiarism. If such evidence is found the paper is rejected and no further submissions will be accepted. If you are unsure what is meant by plagiarism read the Wikipedia article; also there are services such as WriteCheck, which, for a fee, will check your paper for evidence of plagiarism. Also, many universities now use plagiarism checking software to check the work of students: use such software on your own paper, to ensure that it will be acceptable.

13. Citation of electronic sources. When referencing electronic sources you should make every effort to locate open access materials, whether on authors' Websites or in repositories, and whether technical reports, journal papers or theses: these should then be quoted with the necessary url and also archived to the Internet Archive: see Reference list, 2.3 below.

B. Citations and references

The journal follows the practice recommended by the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed., with the exceptions noted below. The exceptions are necessary in part because the APA Manual is very US-centred, and partly because the use of internal hyperlinks by the journal renders some distinctions unnecessary.

Useful guidance on the APA rules can be found on a number of Websites, that of Purdue University's Online Writing Lab is particularly good. Note, however, that this site uses the ampersand to connect authors' names in the citation – this is not the recommended form, APA and the journal use 'and'. The use of the ampersand is restricted to the reference list. Further information is given below.

Citations in the text.

1. Citations in the text should use the author/date format, or 'Harvard system':

1.1 Personal author: follow the instructions in the APA Manual, 7th ed., (i.e., Brown, 1956) or (Brown and Jones, 2011). In the case of works with three or more authors, for example "Smith, Brown, Jones and Thompson, 1999" shorten to "Smith, et al., 1999". Note that this is a change from the 6th edition of the APA Manual.

1.2 Groups as authors: cite in the same way as personal authors abbreviating where appropriate. For example, (IBM Corp., 2007), or (Wellcome Foundation, 2012), but, for a lengthy organization name such as, 'President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research, 1982' abbreviate to (President's Commission..., 1982). If two such commissions reported in 1982 and are cited in the paper, do not distinguish them by expanding the citation; the link to the reference list will do this. The full name of the organization must be provided in the reference list.

1.3 Governments and government departments: the APA Manual gives no instructions for governments as authors, presumably assuming that the general rule for groups as authors will suffice, or, perhaps, imagining that only the US government and its departments will be cited. This is not adequate since many countries will have ministries with the same name, e.g., Ministry of Education. The journal has adopted the rule, therefore, that the country should be cited, e.g., (US. Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare, 1987) or (UK. Ministry of Defence, 1995).

1.4 Citing parts of a work: the most common occasion on which part of a work needs to be cited is in quotations from a text. In this case, or when statements based on parts of a text are made without quotation, give the appropriate page numbers, e.g., 'Brown suggests (2010, pp. 37-38)...' or a similar citation at the end of a quotation. When referring to an entire chapter of a work, cite as '(Brown, 2010, Chapter 3)'

Citing parts of online publications. If the online publication has page numbers, cite as print documents. If no page numbers are given, but paragraphs are numbered, use the paragraph number, e.g., (Jones, 2008, para. 2.2); where neither page numbers nor paragraph numbers are used, give the section heading and count the paragraphs, e.g., (Smart, 2001, Introduction, para 2.)

1.5 Personal communications including e-mail messages: such communications are only cited in the text and do not require an entry in the reference list. They take the form, 'according to Levy (personal communication, May 19, 2011)...'

1.6 Websites. When you refer in general terms to a Website (i.e., rather than to a specific document on the site), provide a link in the text and do not provide a reference list entry. For example, you may be referring to the online newspapers you have used to collect data: in such a case, give the names of the newspapers followed by the URL in parentheses, e.g.,

We examined the following online newspapers for information on the emergency, The Times (, The Guardian (, The Daily Telegraph (http://www.telegraph. and The Daily Mail (

When you prepare the html version of your paper, the URLs should be embedded in the text, i.e., the names of the newspapers become links to their sites, thus:

We examined the following online newspapers for information on the emergency, The TimesThe GuardianThe Daily Telegraph and The Daily Mail.

The reference list

The purpose of the reference list is to record the documents and other sources used in your paper and, in doing so, to provide the information in a consistent manner and with sufficient information for the reader to correctly identify and acquire the specific item. Again, the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed. is followed by the journal, with a number of exceptions. The exceptions generally relate either to the need to draw attention to openly available publications or to take advantage of the digital nature of the journal: the APA rules are still, to an extent, rooted in the practice of printed journals. You may find the APA Style Blog useful - it answers questions about referencing practice and if the current blog does not provide an answer the archived blog covering the 6th edition may help.

1. Books

1.1 Book with one author: General form: Author's name. (Year). Title of book. Publisher.
Note that place of publication is no longer required.

Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods (2nd. ed.). Sage Publications.

1.2 Book with more than one author:

Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: grounded theory procedures and techniques. Sage Publications.

Note: variation from APA - a word following a colon is not capitalised in English punctuation.

1.3 Book with editor(s): General form: Editor's name. (Ed(s).). (Year). Title of book. (Edition). Publisher.

Gibbs, J. T., & Huang, L. N. (Eds.). (1991). Children of color: psychological interventions and minority youth. Jossey-Bass
Bruce, C. S., & Candy, P. (Eds.). (2000). Information literacy around the world: advances in programs and research. Charles Sturt University.

1.4 Chapter in a book:

Wilson, T. D., & Maceviciute, E. (2012). Users’ interactions with digital libraries. In G.G. Chowdhury, & Schubert Foo (Eds.), Digital libraries and information access: research perspectives (pp. 113-128). Cambridge University Press.

2. Journal papers

2.1 Article in a journal or magazine: General form: Author's name. (Year). Title of article. Title of journal or magazine, volume number(part number), page numbers, DOI as a URL, URL from which the paper was retrieved, if different from the DOI.

Henshaw, R. & Valauskas, E. J. (2001). Metadata as a catalyst: experiments with metadata and search engines in the Internet journal, First Monday. Libri51(2), 86-101.
Watson, R.T., Akselsen, S., Evjemo, B. & Aarsaether, N. (1999).Teledemocracy in local government. Communications of the ACM, 42(12), 58-63.

When a paper has been retrieved from an online source, "Retrieved from" is no longer used: only the URL is given, in parentheses, and it is this version that may be archived, for example:

Gray, N. J., Klein, J. D., Noyce, P. R., Sesselberg, T. S. & Cantrill, J. A. (2005). Health information-seeking behaviour in adolescence: the place of the internet. Social Science & Medicine 60(7) 1467–1478. ( (Archived by the Internet Archive at

Note: If the DOI link leads to an open access copy of the paper, the second URL can be omitted. The Internet Archive link has been shortened at because it resulted in a very long url, which could affect the formatting of the paper.

2.2 List all authors for papers with up to twenty authors. For papers with 21 or more authors: cite the first 19, insert the mark of elision (...) and then the last named author. Thus, instead of,

Enwald, H. P. K, Kortelainen, T., Leppäluoto, J., Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S., Jämsä, T., Oinas-Kukkonen, H., ... Huotari, M-L. A. (2013). Perceptions of fear appeal and preferences for feedback in tailored health communication: an explorative study among pre-diabetic individuals. Information Research, 18(3), paper 584.

which would be the entry under the 6th edition rules, this paper would now be listed as:

Enwald, H. P. K, Kortelainen, T., Leppäluoto, J., Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S., Jämsä, T., Oinas-Kukkonen, H., Herzig, K-H. & Huotari, M-L. A. (2013). Perceptions of fear appeal and preferences for feedback in tailored health communication: an explorative study among pre-diabetic individuals. Information Research, 18(3), paper 584. (Archived by the Internet Archive at

Note that no DOI is used in this example, as Information Research was not using them at this time.

2.3 Papers in open-access online journals.The previous example is such a case and the full entry should include the URL and a note on the archiving of the paper to the Internet Archive, as shown, unless the paper has been retrieved from an existing archive, such as,,, or an institutional repository.

Archiving to the Internet Archive is essential to guard against link rot: the half-life of a Web page is about two and half years, so there is no guarantee that a URL will continue to be reliable link to the document. This particularly applies to newspaper and magazine articles, but scholarly papers may also disappear from a personal home page, for example, if the author moves from one institution to another.

When preparing the HTML version of your paper for Information Research, the Internet Archive URL should be embedded in the titles of papers in the reference list. This is the only required link, do not use the URL of the original location of the document.

2.4 Online, advance publication. When a paper is published online before formal publication in a print journal, it should be treated as a preprint and defined as "in press", as the true date of publication is when it appears in print and volume number, issue number and page numbers are generally unknown. If a DOI is provided for such a paper, use it in the reference.

Madathil, K. C., Rivera-Rodriguez, A. J., Greenstein, J.S., & Gramopadhye, A. K. (in press). Healthcare information on YouTube: a systematic review. Health Informatics Journal.

If such a paper has been archived to an institutional or other repository, or a personal Website, indicate this in the reference: again, the publication date is "in press"

Hoeven, C. L. t., Stohl, C., Leonardi, P., & Stohl, M. (in press). Assessing organizational information visibility: development and validation of the information visibility scale. Communication Research. (Advance online access

This differs from the APA rule, which would require an author to use the date the paper appears online, but to change that date if the final print version appears before publication of the citing paper. This seems unnecessarily complicated and leads to the same paper being cited by different persons as being published at different times. Of course, if by the time of the final copy-edit, the cited paper has been published, with the appropriate volume number, issue number and pagination, it can then be changed.

2.5 Chapters in annual reviews are treated as journal papers:

Case, D. O. (2006). Information seeking. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, 41, 293-326.

3. Conference papers

3.1 Unpublished papers or posters, delivered at conferences:

Dervin, B. (1983). An overview of sense-making research: concepts, methods and results to date. Paper presented at the International Communications Association Annual Meeting, Dallas, Texas.

3.2 Papers published in conference proceedings:

Järvelin, K., Price, S. L., Delcambre, L. M. L. & Nielsen, M. L. (2008). Discounted cumulated gain based evaluation of multiple-query IR sessions. In C. Macdonald, I. Ounis, V. Plachouras, I. Ruthven, & R. W. White, (Eds.), Proceedings of the 30th European Conference on Advances in Information Retrieval (pp. 4-15). Springer. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 4956).

Note: this differs from the APA rules and is in accordance with standard bibliographical practice: Springer's various Lecture Notes are series, but APA treats the designation as a title and places it before the title proper. Note that the editors of the conference proceedings should be cited, where they are available—some proceedings do not name editors.

3.3 Papers in regularly published conference proceedings (usually with volume numbers in series) are treated as papers in a journal:

Hirsh, S. G. (1996). Complexity of search tasks and children's information retrieval. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science, 33, 47-51.

4. Technical and scientific reports

Reports may be published in a formal, numbered series, e.g., from a research laboratory, or they may simply be one-off reports at the end of a project. They constitute a category of so-called 'grey literature', that is, they are not formally published, but made available on an ad hoc basis, as and when they are produced. Before the appearance of the World Wide Web, they were often made available in only a limited number of copies, but now the majority are published on the Web, sometimes by the funding agency, sometimes by one of its contractors, sometimes by individual scholars. .

The general format of a reference for a report is as for a normally published document:

Author's name. (Date). Title. Publisher. (Series title and number - if present).

Sackman, H. (1974). Delphi assessment; expert opinion, forecasting, and group process. The RAND Corporation. (R-1283-PR).

If the report is available online, give the URL and archive the report to the Internet Archive.

Ritchie, A. (2009). Citation context analysis for information retrieval. University of Cambridge, Computer Laboratory. (Technical reports UCAM-CL-TR-744). (Archived by the Internet Archive at

5. Theses and dissertations

5.1 Unpublished dissertations and theses:

Huotari, M-L. (1995). Information management and competitive advantage: a case study approach. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Sheffield, Sheffield, U.K.

5.2 Dissertations and theses published by the University concerned, or by some other agency: such publications are treated as books and take the form normal for a book. A parenthetical note may be added to indicate that the work is a thesis. For example:

Järneving, B. (2006). The combined application of bibliographic coupling and the complete link cluster method in bibliometric science mapping. Valfrid. (University of Gothenburg Ph.D. dissertation)

6. Dictionary and encyclopaedia entries:

6.1 Dictionary entry:

Literacy. (1996). In Chambers 21st century dictionary. Chambers.

6.2 Encyclopaedia entry:

Harnad, S. (2002). Electronic journal archives. In International encyclopedia of information and library science (2nd. ed., pp. 174-176). Routledge.

6.3 Anonymous encyclopaedia entry:

Turing machine. (2013). In Wikipedia: the free encyclopedia. Retrieved February 12, 2020 from (Archived by the Internet Archive at

Note: Wikipedia articles are subject to a great deal of revision and therefore qualify as unstable sources; therefore, use "Retrieved <date> from..." with the URL.

7. Newspapers and magazines

7.1 Newspaper article (no author):

Ebooks: self-publish and be annotated. (2013, December 23). The Guardian, p. 14

The in-text citation will be (Ebooks..., 2013)

7.2 Magazine article:

Cave, N. (2013, December 20). How I learned to stop worrying and love Amazon. New Statesman, 47-53.

8. Legal documents

The APA Rules are rather unhelpful in that they deal only with American legislation and, as a result, are not much use in an international journal. We simply use the title of the act, with other publication details providing the geographical context.

A physical document will take the form: Data Protection Act 2018. The Stationery Office.

The electronic version provides the URL, and is archived to the Internet Archive

Data Protection Act 2018. (Archived by the Internet Archive at

Another example from a recent paper:

Ley General de Pesca y Acuicultura. (1991). [General law of fisheries and aquaculture].

Here the date is given in parentheses as it is not part of the title of the law. Also, it was not possible to archive this document to the Internet Archive.

Regulations, statutory instruments and similar legislative documents are dealt with similarly, e.g.,

The Wireless Telegraphy (Broadband Fixed Wireless Access Licences) Regulations 2001. (Statutory instruments 2001 No. 3193). (Archived by WebCite® at

This document had been archived to the Internet Archive, but could not be accessed: an earlier link to has been used.

Reglamento Sobre Áreas de Manejo y Explotación de Recursos Bentonicos. [Regulation on the areas of management and exploitation of benthic resources.] (Decreto supremo 1995 No. 355).

9. Electronic sources

Note that all open access electronic sources must be archived to the Internet Archive ( to ensure continued availability of the item, unless they are already formally archived by such services as institutional repositories,,, Arxiv, etc.

9.1 Electronic journal: Use the same form as for a print publication. However, Web journals, etc., commonly do not have page numbers, unless they are .pdf format versions of a printed journal. When a journal has 'paper numbers', as does Information Research use the number in place of the pagination. Follow the bibliographical reference with information on the date of access and the URL of the paper as below. Note that the WebCite URL is also used as a link from the cited item.

Pilerot, O. (2013). A practice theoretical exploration of information sharing and trust in a dispersed community of design scholars. Information Research, 18(4), paper 595. (Archived by the Internet Archive at

9.2 Electronic magazine or newsletter article (authored):

Ashford, W. (2013, December 24). Top 10 IT privacy stories of 2013. Computer (Archived by the Internet Archive at

9.3 Electronic magazine or newsletter article (no author):

CLIR and LC publish report on America's endangered silent-film heritage. (2013, November/December). CLIR Issues, No. 96. (Archived by the Internet Archive at

9.4 Electronic version of a newspaper article:

Spain privacy watchdog fines Google for breaking data law. (2013, December 20). The Guardian. (Archived by WebCite® at

Note: the earlier WebCite archive link has been used because the Internet Archive link led to a message saying that the content had been removed.

9.5 Individual documents on Websites: Author/Corporate author name. (Date) Title of file. URL. (Internet Archive source). For example:

Sveiby, K. E. (2001). Measuring intangible assets. (Archived by the Internet Archive at

In the case of documents from large, official sites, identify the host organization and the relevant programme or department before giving the URL for the document. For example:

Brick, J., Collins, M. & Chandler, K. (1998). An experiment in random-digit-dial screening. US Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement website: (Archived by the Internet Archive at

Note: if a date is not available use (n.d.)

9.6 Chapters or sections of an Internet document:

Sawicki, M. (2001). Edmund Husserl (1859-1938). In The Internet encyclopedia of philosophy. (Archived by the Internet Archive at

9.7 Personal e-mail messages: e-mail messages sent from one person to another should be treated as personal communications: they are cited as 'personal communication' in the text, but do not appear in the reference list.

9.8 Messages posted to electronic forum or discussion lists:

Koehler, W. C. (2002, October 21). Who do we use to educate LIS students - a teaser. [Online forum comment]. (Archived by WebCite® at

9.9 Blog post:

Wilson, T. D. (2013, December 13). Report on the International Conference: Publishing–Trends and Contexts, 6-7 December, 2013, 19th Book Fair, Pula, Istria, Croatia. [Blog post]. (Archived by WebCite® at

9.10 Comment on a blog post:

Morgan, S. (2013, November 13). Re: Top 20 local search factors: an illustrated guide [Blog comment]. Retrieved from

10. Mobile app documents: increasingly magazines are being presented in the form of mobile apps for smartphones and tablet computers, such as the iPhone and the iPad and their Android operating system equivalents. Such items should be avoided if possible, since they will be inaccessible to those who do not possess the appropriate mobile device, and a further disadvantage is that they cannot be archived, making their future use uncertain.

The APA rules have no provision for documents of this kind: our suggestion is to use the same form as for an online magazine, adding the words 'iPad app' or 'Android app' in square brackets after the publication details. For example:

Whipple, T. (2013, May/June). Slaves to the algorithm. Intelligent Life. [iPad app.]

11. Citing social media communications

11.1 YouTube video. Use the general form: Last name, First initial, second initial. (Year, Month, Date). Title of video. [Video file]. Retrieved from… specific video url.

Example: Grande, T. L. (2016, April 23). Selecting a random sample using SPSS. [Video file]. Retrieved from

11.2 Tweet. Use the general form: Twitter handle. (Year, Month, Date). Enter the tweet message here. [Twitter post]. Retrieved from… specific tweet url

Example: Statistics solutions. (2018, June 2). Ethnography is the in-depth study of a culture or a facet of a culture. Because of this, ethnographic research often looks very different compared with other research designs. [Tweet].

11.3 Facebook page. ASIS&T. (n.d.) Timeline [Facebook page]. (Archived by the Internet Archive at

11.4 Facebook post. Use the general form: Username. (Year, Month, Date). Enter Facebook post here (up to first 40 words). [Facebook update]. Facebook post url

Example: Research Whisperer. (2018, June 7). At Peeriodicals, you can curate important published manuscripts & preprints, creating an online "journal". [Facebook status update]. (Archived by the Internet Archive at



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